Components of Air Conditioner System

Components of Air Conditioner

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Before knowing how air conditioner works, lets understand the components of air conditioner system and its parts first. According to thermodynamics, AC is a closed system which means there is only energy interaction and no mass transfer with environment. An air conditioner is a simple cooling system. With the components of air conditioner system, air conditioning includes the cooling and heating of air, cleaning and controlling its moisture level as well as conditioning it to provide maximum indoor comfort.

Example for open system is IC engine. In IC engine, energy from working fluid is consumed and exhaust gas is sent to atmosphere. Here we have energy as well as mass interaction. But in AC or refrigerator energy is consumed and working fluid is reused. There is no mass interaction in AC.

Components of Air Conditioner System

An air conditioner transfers heat from the inside of a building, where it is not wanted, to the outside. Refrigerant in the system absorbs the excess heat and is then pumped through a closed system of piping to an outside coil.

A fan blows outside air over the hot coil, transferring heat from the refrigerant to the outdoor air. Because the heat is removed from the indoor air, the indoor area is cooled.

4 Typical Components of Air Conditioner

An air conditioner has 4 typical components, the typical components of air conditioner are:


It is the main part of AC in which the refrigerant gas is compressed. Gas from evaporator enters into the compressor. The outlet of compressor is connected to condenser. Typically used refrigerant gas is R134a (Tetrafluroethane). Compressor is always kept outside of the room where it needs to be air-conditioned.


This condenser assembly is looking like a wire mesh. Working fluid enters into the condenser in super-heated state because of compression. Actually that is a small aluminium tube made like a mesh.

Here with the help of fan, refrigerant is condensed which means temperature of the gas is neither increased nor decreased. Only the state of fluid is changed. Due to forced convection heat transfer, phase of the fluid is changed from gas to liquid. Condenser also should be kept outside of the room.

Expansion Valve or Throttling Device

It is a flow restricting device that controls the flow of refrigerant into evaporator. Reduced pressure means reduced boiling point of the fluid. Pressure drop of fluid causes boiling point temperature reduction. According to the temperature inside the room flow of refrigerant is controlled.


Evaporator assembly is kept inside the room which needs to be air-conditioned. It functions opposite to the condenser. Refrigerant gas absorbs the heat inside the room and gets evaporated. With the help of a blower, cooled air blown into the room. Here we are using blower instead of fan to send more volume of the cooled air. Whereas in condenser, fan is used to increase to rate of change of heat transfer. Phase of the fluid is changed to gas from liquid here.

Components of Air Conditioner Conclusion

After going through the above portion of an air conditioner we can now establish components of air conditioner. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.