Electrolytic Capacitor Symbol and Definition

Electrolytic Capacitor Symbol and Definition

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Do you know electrolytic capacitor symbol name and description? Before understanding electrolytic capacitor symbol. I should first explain what electrolytic capacitor is, an electrolytic capacitor is a special type of capacitor which uses an electrolyte for achieving higher capacitance ranging from 1uF to 50mF value, unlike other capacitors.

An electrolyte is an answer having a high grouping of ions in it. Aluminium electrolytic capacitor, tantalum electrolytic capacitor and niobium electrolytic capacitor are three class of electrolytic capacitors utilized.

Electrolytic Capacitor Symbol and Definition

For example in aluminium electrolytic capacitor, two aluminium metal foils are used as electrodes. The aluminium metal foil with purity around (99.9%) and thickness around 20-100 um is made the anode while the cathode can be of modest purity level about 97.8%.

Due to electrochemical procedure (anodization) of the anode, a layer of aluminum oxides shapes on its surface while cathode additionally builds up an oxide layer on its surface , but it is thinnest hence serve no use.

The oxide layer gets formed on the anode surface serves as a dielectric medium for the capacitor and is responsible for its high capacitance per unit volume as compared with other capacitors.

The Construction of An Electrolytic Capacitor

The surface of both the anode and cathode are roughened so to increase the surface area and thus increases its capacitance per unit volume. The construction of an electrolytic capacitor involves stacking of two aluminium foils with a spacer, i.e. an electrolyte soaked paper between them so to avoid direct contact between the two foils to prevent short-circuiting of plates.

The stacked arrangement are rolled together and are placed in a cylindrical metal can for furnishing mechanical quality accordingly furnishing it with a compact and robust shape.

The electrolytic capacitors due to its robust and compact design are utilized in different electrical machines like in PC motherboard. They are broadly utilized as commotion channels in electronic circuits, symphonious channels in power supplies and SMPS, etc.

The electrolytic capacitors are a polarised capacitor unlike other types of the capacitor so they must be connected properly in circuits with marked polarity.

If we connect an electrolytic capacitor in opposite polarity in the circuit, the reverse voltage applied across the metal foil will annihilate the oxides layer framed on the anode, and therefore a short out will happen which cause over the top current to flow through the capacitor causing warming which results in rupturing of the capacitor.

See Also: Capacitor in Series and Parallel

Electrolytic Capacitor Works

To safeguard the capacitor, it should be connected with correct polarity especially in the circuit involving high power application. An electrolytic capacitor isn’t reasonable for frequency response over 100 kHz.

It has high spillage current as a result of which these parts become hot and burst when utilized for longer span. The component lifespan is exceptionally constrained around 1000 hours, and they should be supplanted from the circuit after a fixed time.

An electrolytic capacitor develops excessive heat when high frequency and high amplitude voltage signal is utilized due to its high internal resistance. The voltage applied across the foil should be within the limit so to avoid dielectric breakdown and to prevent heating of the capacitor due to excessive current is drawn by it.

Electrolytic capacitor’s high capacitance value, small size and low-cost value is responsible for its high usage in different power machines including high current or low-frequency activity commonly below 100KHZ applications.

See Also: Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Electrolytic Capacitor Symbol Name

Electrolytic capacitor has 2 symbols. These are electrolytic capacitor symbols:

  • Polarized Capacitor polarized capacitor symbol
  • Polarized Capacitor polarized capacitor symbol

See Also: How a Capacitor Works?

Electrolytic Capacitor Conclusion

After going through the above portion of the construction of an electrolytic capacitor we can now establish electrolytic capacitor symbol. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.