# Types of DC Generators (Series, Shunt and Compound)

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The mmf necessary to establish flux in the magnetic circuit of a dc generator can be obtained by means of

• i. Permanent magnets
• ii. Field coils excited from some external source and
• iii. Field coils excited by the generator itself.

Generators are generally classified according to these methods of field excitation. On this basis, dc generators are divided into the following two classes:

1. Permanent magnet dc generators
2. Separately excited dc generators
3. Self-excited dc generators

In permanent magnet dc machines, permanent magnet is used to establish flux in the magnetic circuit.

These generators are not found in industrial applications because of the low power generated from it. Such generators are employed only in small sizes like dynamos in motor cycles.

# Types of DC Generators (Series, Shunt and Compound)

Generally DC generators are classified according to the ways of excitation of their fields. There are three methods of excitation.

1. Field coils excited by permanent magnets – Permanent magnet DC generators.
2. Field coils excited by some external source – Separately excited DC generators.
3. Field coils excited by the generator itself – Self excited DC generators.

A brief description of these type of DC generators are given below.

## Permanent Magnet DC Generator

When the flux in the magnetic circuit is established by the help of permanent magnets then it is known as Permanent magnet DC generator.

It consists of an armature and one or several permanent magnets situated around the armature. This type of DC generators generates very low power. So, they are rarely found in industrial applications. They are normally used in small applications like dynamos in motorcycles.

## Separately Excited DC Generator

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by some external DC source such as battery.

A circuit diagram of separately excited DC generator is shown in the figure.

• Ia = Armature current
• V = Terminal voltage
• Eg = Generated emf

Voltage drop in the armature = Ia × Ra (R/sub>a is the armature resistance) Let,

Then,

Power generated,

Power delivered to the external load,

## Self-excited DC Generators

These are the generators whose field magnets are energized by the current supplied by themselves. In these type of machines, field coils are internally connected with the armature. Due to residual magnetism some flux is always present in the poles. When the armature is rotated, some emf is induced. Hence some induced current is produced.

This small current flows through the field coil as well as the load and thereby strengthening the pole flux. As the pole flux strengthened, it will produce more armature emf, which cause the further increase of current through the field.

This increased field current further raises armature emf, and this cumulative phenomenon continues until the excitation reaches to the rated value. According to the position of the field coils the self-excited DC generators may be classified as…

1. Series wound generators
2. Shunt wound generators
3. Compound wound generators

### Series Wound Generator

In these type of generators, the field windings are connected in series with armature conductors as shown in figure below. So, whole current flows through the field coils as well as the load. As series field winding carries full load current it is designed with relatively few turns of thick wire. The electrical resistance of series field winding is therefore very low (nearly 0.5Ω ).

Let,

• Rsc = Series winding resistance
• Isc = Current flowing through the series field
• a = Armature resistance
• Ia = Armature current
• V = Terminal voltage
• Eg = Generated emf

Then,

Power generated,

### Shunt Wound DC Generators

In these type of DC generators the field windings are connected in parallel with armature conductors as shown in figure below. In shunt wound generators the voltage in the field winding is same as the voltage across the terminal.

Let,

• Rsh = Shunt winding resistance
• Ish = Current flowing through the shunt field
• Ra = Armature resistance
• Ia = Armature current
• V = Terminal voltage
• Eg = Generated emf

Here armature current Ia is dividing in two parts, one is shunt field current Ish and another is load current IL.

So,

The effective power across the load will be maximum when IL will be maximum. So, it is required to keep shunt field current as small as possible. For this purpose the resistance of the shunt field winding generally kept high (100 Ω) and large no of turns are used for the desired emf.

Shunt field current,

Power generated,

### Compound Wound DC Generator

In series wound generators, the output voltage is directly proportional with load current. In shunt wound generators, output voltage is inversely proportional with load current. A combination of these two types of generators can overcome the disadvantages of both. This combination of windings is called compound wound DC generator.

Compound wound generators have both series field winding and shunt field winding. One winding is placed in series with the armature, and the other is placed in parallel with the armature. This type of DC generators may be of two types- short shunt compound-wound generator and long shunt compound-wound generator.

#### Short Shunt Compound Wound DC Generator

The generators in which only shunt field winding is in parallel with the armature winding as shown in figure.

Series field current,

Shunt field current,

Armature current,

Power generated,

#### Long Shunt Compound Wound DC Generator

The generators in which shunt field winding is in parallel with both series field and armature winding as shown in figure.

Shunt field current,

Armature current, Ia = series field current,