Electric Current: Definition and Theories

Posted on

Electric current is defined an electric charge that flows through conductor per unit time. Electric charge is brought by protons and electrons in an atom. Proton has positive charge, while electron has negative charge. But, the most of protons are only moves in atomic nucleus. So, Electron brings charge from 1 to another places. This is because in conductor material such as metal, one of them is free moving from 1 atom to another atoms.

Atom in conductor material has many free electron that moves from 1 atom to another atom in 2 direction (random or irregular) so that it doesn’t flow to one direction. When it’s given voltage in the conductor, all of electrons will be free moving to the same direction so that creating electric current flow. Electric current is usually denoted “I” it means “Intensity”. Meanwhile, the unit of electric current is Ampere is usual shortened “A” or “Amp”. One of the Ampere can be defined as the number of electrons or charge (Q or Coulombs) that passes through a particular point in 1 second.

Whereas in ohm’s law states that magnitude of electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to potential difference or voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Ohm’s law formula is I = V/R.

Electric Current: Definition and Theories

An electric current is also defined a flowing motion of charged particles, and the particles do not carry energy along with them as they move. A current is defined as a flow of charge by I=Q/T; amperes are coulombs of charge flowing per unit time. The term “Electric Current” means the same thing as “charge flow”.

Electric Current Flow

Electric current flow has 2 theories, are conventional current flow and electron current flow. I will explain each theories in order to you understand what happens on its theory.

Conventional Current Flow

Conventionally, we often say that electric flow in a series of electronic is flowing from positive (+) to negative direction (-). This direction of conventional current flow is current flow which using principle charge, where an electric current as a flow of positive charge in a conductor from high potential to low potential.

But, this direction of electric current flow is contrary to the principle of electron flow in a conductor. This concept of conventional current flow is used to facilitate the understanding to direction of electric flow charge from the positive to the negative.

Electron Flow

This direction of electron flow is contrary to direction of conventional current flow. Because, electron is negatively charged particle and moving freely drawn into positive terminal. Thus, the direction of electric flow in a series is an electron flow from negative poles of a battery and back to positive poles of a battery. So, the direction of electron flow is from the negative (-) to the positive (+).

Understanding Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC)

AC or Alternating Current is the most large electric and its current is always variable and contradictory. Electric current in AC is safe to move the energy in long distance in large quantities. DC or Direct Current is usually used by electronic device such as LED, computer, TV, radio, etc. If power factor in AC should be between 0 or 1, then the power factor in DC should be always 1, and current in DC can be obtained from battery.

Electric Current Conclusion

After going through the above portion of electric current theory we can now establish a electric current definition. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.