What is Electric Field? Definition, Value, Properties and Static

Electric Field: Definition, Value, Properties, and Static

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What is electric field? Electric field is measured by a term known as electric field intensity. Or electric field is the region around the electric charge in which the stress or electric force act. If the magnitude of charge is large, then it may create a huge stress around the region.

The field or space around an electrically charged object where any other electrically charged object can experience a force is called the electric field of former charged object.

Electric Field: Definition, Value, Properties, and Static

If we place a positive unit charge near a positively charged object, the positive unit charge will experience a repulsive force. Because of force, the positive unit charge will move far from the said charged object. The nonexistent line through which the unit positive charge moves, is known as line of line of force.

lines of force

Also, if we put a positive unit in the field of a negatively charged object, the unit positive charge will encounter an alluring force. Because of this force, the unit positive charge will come nearer to the said negatively charged object. All things considered, line through which the positive unit charge moves, is called line of force.

We can put a unit positive anyplace encompass the decidedly charged article and each position where we place it, the unit positive charge pursues a different line force to move. Consequently, we can say, the lines of force get transmitted or turn out from this charged object.

positive electric field

But for a negatively charged object, these lines of force come into this negatively charged object.

negative electric field

After we know electric field definition, we will discuss electric field value, properties, and static. Let’s see below.

What is The Value of Electric Field?

Electric field at a point in the space is estimated as the force following up on the unit positive charge at that point. When a charged object enters the electric field of another charged object, it experiences a force as per Coulomb’s law.

Let us take a charged object, of charge Q1 Coulomb. Let us place one unit positive charge at r meter away from the center of Q1.

So, as per Coulomb’s law, the force experienced by the unit positive charge is:

Here, we have considered that the medium is air or vacuum in which we placed both charge Q1 and unit positive charge. The force experienced by the unit positive charge is the estimation of the electric field of of Q1 at the point where we have put the unit positive charge.

This force vector is denoted by . The term is known as electric field intensity or electric field quality.

Now, we put an object of charge Q2 coulombs at same point where, unit positive charge was set.

coulombs force

Two positively charged objects repel each other, two negatively charged objects repel each other and two oppositely charged objects attract each other with force  .

This attraction or repulsion force  can be written as:

So, the vector of electric field , decides how unequivocally an electric charge is shocked or pulled in by the charge which has made the electric field.

See Also: What is Magnetic Flux

What is The Direction of Electric Field?

When we place the nonexistent unit positive charge in an electric field, the unit positive charge begins moving because of electrostatic power of the field. The unit charge either comes nearer or goes far, contingent on the idea of the charge, by which the field is made.

The direction of the movement of the unit positive charge in the field is considered as the direction of the electric field. So, an electric field is a vector quantity.

direction of electric field

direction of negative electric field

See Also: Electric Field Strength and Intensity Definition

Properties of an Electric Field

The following are the properties of an electric field.

  1. Field lines never intersect each other.
  2. They are perpendicular to the surface charge.
  3. The field is strong when the lines are close together, and it is weak when the field lines move apart from each other.
  4. The number of field lines is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charge.
  5. The electric field line begins from the positive charge and finishes from negative charge.
  6. If the charge is single, then they start or end at infinity.
  7. The line curves are continuous in a charge-free region.

When the electric and magnetic field combines, they form the electromagnetic field.

Static Electric Field

We know there are two types of charge present in nature (i) positive and (ii) negative charge. In positive charge, there is essentially inadequacy of electrons and in a negative charge, there are overabundance of electrons.

Now, we can basically comprehend the ideas of charge from a fundamental model. Take a dry brush, brush your hair (which ought to be dry) a few times, presently take that brush close little bits of paper, you will see that the paper pieces are getting pulled in to the brush.

This is the very basic example of electric charge and static electric field. Due to friction, there is a development of electrons among brush and hair, so one of them gets positively charged and another one gets negatively charged and as the paper is neutral (i.e. not charged) they get attracted to the comb.

So, we can see that there is an attraction force works between a charged particle and neutral particle, it has been seen further that there is repugnance between two same charged particles and fascination between two oppositely charged particles.

This occurs because of the field made by a particle. This can be understood if we imagine a glowing bulb, the bulb can be taken as the charge and the unmistakable light can be contrasted with static electric field, the normal for the field is like the light as in the power of the field is more prominent close to the source and it blurs as we move further from the source.

Now from another perspective, we can say that static electric field is only an exceptional space, as far as power where work is finished or needed to be done upon in presence of an electrically charged particle depending on the nature of the charged particle.

See Also: What is Magnetic Susceptibility?

Electric Field Conclusion

After going through the above portion of electric field we can now establish a electric field definition. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.