What is Mutual Inductance? Definition and Formula

Mutual Inductance: Definition and Formula

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What is mutual inductance? Mutual inductance is a phenomenon when a coil gets induced in EMF across it due to rate of change current in adjacent coil in such a way that the flux of one coil current gets linkage of another coil. Or mutual inductance is the ratio between induced emf across a coil to the rate of change of current of another adjacent coil in such a way that two coils are in possibility of flux linkage.

Whenever there is a time varying current in a coil, the time varying flux will link with the coil itself and will cause self induced emf across the coil. This emf is seen as a voltage drop over the coil or inductor. But it isn’t useful that a coil gets connected just with its own evolving flux. When a time varying current flows in another coil placed nearby the first one then the flux produced by the second coil may also link the first one.

What is Mutual Inductance? Definition and Formula

This varying flux linkage from the second coil will also induce emf across the first coil. This phenomenon is called mutual induction and the emf initiated in one coil because of time shifting current flowing some other coil is called mutually induced emf. If the first coil is also associated with the time changing source, the net emf of the primary coil is the resultant of self induced and commonly actuated emf.

Coefficient of Mutual Inductance and Self Inductance

Let us consider one coil of self inductance L1 and another coil of self inductance L2. Now we will also think about that there is a low hesitance attractive center which couples these both coils so that whole entire flux made by one coil interface the other coil. That means there will be no spillage of flux in the framework.

Now we will apply a time varying current at coil 1 keeping the coil 2 open circuited. The voltage initiated over the coil 1 will be:

Now we will keep the first coil open and apply time varying current in coil 2. Now the flux created by coil 2 will connection coil 1 through the magnetic core and as a result, the emf initiated in the coil 1 will be:

See Also: Self Inductance: Definition and Explanation

Here, M is the coefficient of mutual induction or in short mutual inductance. Now without aggravating the source at coil 2, we associate a period fluctuating current source over the coil 1. In that situation, there will be a self actuated emf over the coil 1 because of its own current and furthermore commonly initiated emf over the coil 1 for the current in coil 2. So the resultant emf incited in the coil 1 is:

Commonly instigated emf might be either added substance or subtractive relying upon the extremity of the coil. The expression of M is

This expression is justified only when entire flux created by one coil will link another coil but practically it not always possible to link entire flux of one coil to another. The estimation of real mutual inductance relies upon the real measure of flux of one coil interfaces another. Here k is a coefficient which must be increased with M to determine genuine estimation of mutual inductance.

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Dot Convention

As we have already told that whether the mutually induced emf would be added substance or subtractive relies upon the overall extremity of the commonly coupled coils.

The relative polarity of two or more mutually coupled coils is denoted by dot convention. It is represented with a speck mark at either end of a coil. If at an instant, current is entering a coil through dotted end then mutually induced emf on the other coil will have the positive polarity at the dotted end of the later.

It can be said in an alternate manner that in the event that the current is leaving a coil through the spotted end, at that point commonly incited emf on the other coil will have the negative polarity at the dotted end of the later.

Dot Convention

Dot Convention of Mutual Induction

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Mutual Inductance Conclusion

After going through the above coefficient of mutual inductance and self inductance we can now establish a mutual inductance definition. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.