What is Potential Difference? Definition and Formula

Electric Potential Difference: Definition and Formula

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What is an electric potential difference? Electric potential difference is defined as the difference of the number of electrons in an electric current. At one side of electric current source there is electron that piled up while at another side there is the number of electron that a bit. This happen due to a magnet force that affected that material. So, that source becomes an electric voltage.

If the circuit is touched by a material that can conduct electricity so electron flow will flow through something to touch it. If a human touches the object the the human will be flowed electricity in their body (shock). The magnitude of the effect of an electric flow depending from the magnitude of electron difference in a material (potential difference).

Electric Potential Difference: Definition and Formula

Potential difference is an electric potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. An Electric Potential difference is a measure of the potential difference that is capable of evoking an electric field so that it raises electric current in an electrical conductor. In order to charge flow (electric current) in a closed circuit, then potential difference must exist at both ends of the circuit, the electric potential difference is the energy per unit charge.

Electric Potential Difference Formula

An electric potential difference has a unit of volt, symbol for electric potential difference is V, a device to measure the potential difference is called a Voltmeter. Electric potential difference can be calculated by using the formula:

V = I x R


V: Potential difference

I: Current (A)

R: Resistance (ohm)

See Also: What is an Electric Potential?

Potential difference can occur if 2 points in an conductor is connected with a voltage source. Then, this voltage source can flow a large electron but it’s sometimes different depending on its abilities. And that voltage can be measured with using a special tool. The tool that is used to measure voltage or electric potential difference that is called a Voltmeter. Here is an example of electric potential difference circuit using a Voltmeter.

rumus beda potensial

As we know a voltage which is a measure of electric potential difference, is the cause of electrical current to flow in a closed circuit. Is the potential difference definition related to electric current? we should first investigate how a charged particle moves in uniform static electric field.

Let us consider two parallel plates, that are connected to a battery. The upper plate is connected with positive terminal of a battery. Hence this plate is positively charged, and the lower plate is connected to negative terminal of the battery and hence this lower plate is negatively charged.

See Also: What is Electrical Energy?

Electric Potential Difference Conclusion

After going through the above portion of electric potential difference definition we can now establish a electric potential difference formula. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.