Working Principle of Air Conditioner - How AC Works?

Working Principle of Air Conditioner – How AC Works?

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The usage of an air conditioner or generally known as AC, has become almost compulsory in all homes and offices. We all need Ac in our room, office, car, theatre, and almost everywhere. That means air conditioner or AC is that much of influence in each and every one’s life. Even though 85% of people don’t know about the working principle of air conditioner. Here we explain all of these facts about the working principle of air conditioner.

The working principle of an Air conditioner or AC is collecting hot air from a gives spaces and processing it to release cool air into the same space where the hot air had originally been collected. This process is done through the 5 steps such as the evaporator, compressor, condenser, expansion valve, Refrigerant.

Working Principle of Air Conditioner – How AC Works?

An air conditioner is able to cool a building because it removes heat from indoor air and transfers to outdoor air. There is one chemical refrigerant in the ac system that absorbs the unwanted heat surrounding the room or office and pumps it through a system of piping to the outside coil. The main problems in the ac system are grime, dust and dirt ant that need to be handled while maintaining an ac unit.

Components of Air Conditioner

Any air conditioning or refrigerating unit must have four core components in order to work:

  • Compressor
  • Condenser
  • Expansion Valve
  • Evaporator

I will indicate the ideal temperatures for air conditioning in parenthesis to better illustrate this process.

High Pressure

The compressor heightens the pressure and pumps the refrigerant (115°F), towards the condenser. There, it discharges it’s excess heat (105°F), starts to liquify around the second tier of the condenser and is in subcooling during the last tier (95°F), all the way to the expansion valve.

Subcooling is when a refrigerant is at a lower temperature than the phase changing point between gas and liquid. Without it, there is a chance of flash gas happening, which lowers significantly the efficiency of the system. The more supercooled it is, the better. But I digress, let’s continue from where we were at…

The refrigerant arrives at the expansion valve. Once there, it meets an extreme restriction which it passes through.

Low Pressure

Once on the other side a small quantity has entered a much bigger space, so it experience a steep drop in pressure and temperature (35°F) but stays liquid as it enters the evaporator.

Inside the evaporator, the refrigerant absorbs the heat of the room in which it is situated and starts to, well, evaporate (55°F), hence the name of that component. As it nears the exit of the evaporator, the now gaseous refrigerant enters a state of superheating (65°F).

Superheating is the contrary of subcooling. The refrigerant gets hotter than the required temperature to stay gaseous. Unlike subcooling, you can’t have too much superheating or the refrigerant will not be able to cool down the compressor, which will in turn burn out. To palliate for this, we insulate the suction line.

The refrigerant arrives at the compressor (68°F) absorbs it’s excess heat, gets compressed at a high pressure and so the cycle repeats itself.

Working Principle of Air Conditioner Conclusion

After going through the above components of air conditioner we can now establish working principle of air conditioner. I hope you enjoy when reading this article, thank you.